February 2011

It is the recombinant nature of revolutionary innovations that contribute to their dramatic effects."

Andrew Hargadon

Abstract

Mashups combine data from multiple sources to create innovative web applications. Data providers gain compelling advantages in offering an open application programming interface (API), but face a competitive environment where growth occurs by virtue of developers’ independent choices and where competitors are also complementors.

This article explores the nature of competition within the mashup ecosystem by focusing on competitive actions taken by API providers and their link to mashup network structure. The resulting insights help entrants and incumbents refine their competitive strategies within this complex and unique environment.

Introduction

Over the last decade, the Internet has played host to an extraordinary explosion of developer innovation in the form of mashups. Built using web services exposed by third-party data providers via APIs, mashups combine data from multiple APIs into innovative web applications that often meet a long-tail need and have been hailed as "the next major new software development model."

The mashup ecosystem is defined as the combined mashup platforms, data providers, and users that support the creation of mashups (Weiss & Gangadharan, 2010). ProgrammableWeb.com, an online database tracking the mashup ecosystem, lists 33 APIs within the “mapping” category alone, showing healthy competition amongst API providers and representing a rich opportunity to explore it through research.

While mashup developers are motivated by the enjoyment of niche, long-tail problem solving and the opportunity to create novel applications with powerful, highly developed technologies (Floyd, Jones, Rathi, & Twidale, 2007), data providers gain significant benefits by offering an API, including free advertising and exposure, a new source of revenue, and free research and development. This article focuses on exploring competition in this space and providing insight to new entrants and incumbents offering an open API.

Uniqueness of the Mashup Ecosystem

The mashup ecosystem is a unique and complex competitive environment, as exemplified by the following characteristics:

  1. Growth by independent choices: the mashup ecosystem grows by virtue of mashup developers’ independent choices instead of purposeful strategic alliances in inter-firm networks.

  2. A small world where the rich get richer: the majority of mashups use a small number of APIs and API popularity is self-reinforcing (Weiss & Gangadharan, 2010; Yu & Woodard, 2009).

  3. API providers as complementors: API providers function as both competitors and complementors; the combination of two or more datasets into a mashup may be more powerful than a lone dataset.

  4. User innovation: mashup development can be considered part of the democratization of innovation, a trend driven by the steadily improving innovation toolkits made available to users, and the increasing ability for users to combine and coordinate their innovative efforts over the Web (von Hippel, 2004).

  5. Unique resource flows: in an inter-firm network, three types of resource flow occur between partners: information flow, asset flow, and status flow (Gnyawali & Madhavan, 2001). A firm’s ability to access and use these resources varies based on its structural position in the network. The mashup ecosystem may have unique flows, as described in Table 1.

Table 1. Resource Flows in the Mashup Ecosystem

Image:february11_shigaT1.png

Competitive Actions in the Mashup Ecosystem

As part of the author’s recent research, 1277 blog entries spanning five years and pertaining to eight mapping APIs offering similar functionality were categorized into 16 competitive action categories. For example, a blog entry from Google Maps announcing that reverse geocoding was added to the API would be classified as "product development." This process assumed that actions published on an API provider’s blog comprise a competitive action. Table 2 outlines the 16 categories and their subsequent refinement to six final categories specific to the mashup ecosystem.

Table 2. Categorizing Competitive Actions in the Mashup Ecosystem

Image:february11_shigaT2.png

Examining the distributions of these competitive actions across the eight mapping APIs yielded the following insights:

1. Within the distributions of competitive actions, two action categories were universally dominant: feature enhancement and mashup spotlight. While feature enhancement can be considered an established category in competitive strategy theory (Ferrier, 2001) – that is, corresponding to the product category - the mashup spotlight category is unique to the context of this research. This indicates that API providers are making efforts to promote the work of developers using their API, which is a testament to the increasing importance of product and service development by users.

2. The three oldest and most popular APIs in the research population are Yahoo Maps, Google Maps, and Bing Maps, based on their date of entry into the ProgrammableWeb database and subsequent activity. These three APIs were consistently in their top four categories within the distribution: marketing, mashup spotlight, feature enhancement, and instructional. This demonstrates consistency of behaviour in the major players in the mashup ecosystem, but may also indicate the relatively vast resources available to the industry-heavyweights that are providing these three APIs: Yahoo, Google, and Microsoft.

3. While marketing and feature enhancement correspond to established categories, the mashup spotlight and instructional categories emphasize service to the developer community. This further demonstrates a commitment from the major players in the mashup ecosystem to support user innovation.

4. Lastly, the newest and least popular APIs within the research population were Cloudmade, Multimap, and Maponics. The providers of these APIs focused more on engaging the community and less on providing instructional services to developers. This may indicate that resources are more focused on promotion and growth for new entrants to the mashup ecosystem, and may also imply a lifecycle model where entrant behaviour evolves into incumbent behaviour. The providers of these less-popular APIs may also benefit from emulating the major players by improving service to the developer community.

A Network Within the Mashup Ecosystem

Approaching the mashup ecosystem as a network invites the use of social network analysis to explore how APIs are connected via mashups and the overall characteristics of the network. Analysis of this network reveals the different ways in which mashup developers combine APIs to create original applications – specifically, an API’s access to resources, its popularity, the number of times it has been combined with other APIs, and the diversity of those combinations. The network can be visualized as nodes and links, as illustrated in Figure 1, which shows a subset of the API network used in this research. Here, the nodes represent APIs and the links indicate APIs that have been used together in a mashup.

Figure 1. A Subset of the API Network

Image:february11_shiga1.png

In the author’s recent research, applying social network analysis techniques to the API network and testing relationships between network structure and competitive actions revealed several insights. Overall, network position was not observed to have a significant influence on competitive action patterns; that is, API providers do not appear to gain advantage from resource asymmetries in the API-API network. They may also simply give little regard to developer activities and existing mashups in their competitive strategies. However, an isolated result suggested a possible relationship between the volume of competitive actions taken and the diversity of combinations with other APIs. This may indicate that a broader popularity within the mashup ecosystem may enable or drive increased competitive actions, and it suggests API providers may benefit from nurturing mashup combinations with many different other APIs.

Furthermore, APIs pairs that were frequently combined showed very different competitive action patterns over time. This may be attributed to API providers’ efforts to differentiate themselves in competitive strategy, possibly to deter imitation, which is a threat in the context of modularization (Ethiraj, Levinthal, & Roy, 2008). Other research indicates that gains in market share increase when top firms seek a unique approach to their diversity of product offerings, technological leadership, and branding (Ferrier, Smith, & Grimm, 1999), and API providers may be well-served to diversify their competitive strategies, especially when faced with close competition for mashup market share.

Conclusion

API providers have much to gain in offering an open API, including revenue, exposure, and free research and development. However, the mashup ecosystem is a complex and unique competitive environment. API providers take specific actions in their competitive strategies, and they place a strong emphasis on frequent feature enhancements and promotion of third-party developer mashups. This demonstrates their commitment to user innovation. New entrants to the mashup ecosystem may gain an advantage in focusing on service to developers.

Competitive action is not strongly embedded in the API network structure. However, entrants and incumbents would be well served by examining this network structure and their position within it to observe the volume, variation, and innovation of mashups formed with other APIs and adjusting their competitive strategies accordingly. The mashup ecosystem remains rich fodder for competitive dynamics research and a cutting-edge playing field for data providers looking to disrupt their markets and gain a new competitive edge.

Share this article:

Cite this article:

Rate This Content: 
No votes have been cast yet. Have your say!

Comments

http://bit.ly/1P41Awa undangan pernikahan klub bola
http://www.sentrabesibaja.com/welded-beam-castellated-beam-queen-king-cr... Agen Welded Beam T beam King Queen Cross Castellated Beam
http://bit.ly/1P41Awa undangan pernikahan cetak
http://www.jualbesibajamurah.com/harga-besi-profil-cnp-gording-kanal-c-b... Pabrik besi cnp baja
http://www.sentrabesibaja.com/plat-besi-baja-hitam/ Agen Plat Besi Hitam
https://goo.gl/XZ6zpY undangan pernikahan
http://www.sentrabesibaja.com/besi-siku-baja/ Agen Jual Besi Siku Baja
http://www.sentrabesibaja.com/bondek-cor-sni/ Agen Bondek Cor
http://www.sentrabesibaja.com/atap-spandek/ Agen Atap Spandek Sni
http://www.jualbesibetonhargapabrikmurah.com/category/besi-beton-psi-uli... Toko besi beton psi Ulir Polos
http://www.pusatbesibaja.co.id/harga-besi-profil-cnp-gording-kanal-c-baj... Distributor besi cnp baja
http://www.pusatbesibaja.com/harga-besi-profil-cnp-gording-kanal-c-baja-... Distributor besi cnp baja
http://bit.ly/1P41Awa undangan pernikahan klasik
http://www.jualbesibajamurah.com/harga-besi-profil-h-beam-kanal-h-baja-p... Distributor besi h beam baja
http://www.sentrabesibaja.com/plat-kapal-marine/ Agen Plat Kapal Bki Krakatau Steel
http://www.undangancinta.com undangan pernikahan amplop surat
http://www.sentrabesibaja.com/besi-unp-baja-kanal-u/ Agen Besi Unp Baja Profil Kanal
http://ironsteelcenter.com/stainless-steel-ss-sus-304-210-316-310-301-st... Distributor Stainless steel
http://www.sentrabesibaja.com/plat-bordes-kembang/ Agen Plat Bordes Kembang
http://www.jualbesibetonhargapabrikmurah.com/category/besi-beton-perwira... Toko besi beton perwira
https://sagalayavillage.com/2017/09/07/sewa-villa-puncak-bukit-danau-clu... sewa villa puncak
http://www.pusatbesibaja.co.id/harga-besi-profil-cnp-gording-kanal-c-baj... Harga besi cnp baja
http://www.pusatbesibaja.com/harga-besi-profil-cnp-gording-kanal-c-baja-... Harga besi cnp baja
http://bit.ly/1P41Awa undangan pernikahan cantik elegan
http://www.jualbesibajamurah.com/harga-besi-profil-h-beam-kanal-h-baja-p... Harga besi h beam baja
http://www.fabrikasikonstruksi.com jasa konstruksi baja
http://www.undangancinta.com undangan pernikahan simple
http://www.sentrabesibaja.com/besi-cnp-baja-kanal-c-gording/ Agen Besi Cnp Profil Baja Gording
http://ironsteelcenter.com/stainless-steel-ss-sus-304-210-316-310-301-st... Supplier Stainless steel
http://www.jualbesibajamurah.com/harga-besi-profil-cnp-gording-kanal-c-b... Distributor besi cnp baja
http://www.jualbesibetonhargapabrikmurah.com/category/besi-beton-pas-uli... Toko besi beton PAS
http://www.pusatbesibaja.co.id/harga-besi-profil-cnp-gording-kanal-c-baj... Jual besi cnp baja
http://www.pusatbesibaja.com/harga-besi-profil-cnp-gording-kanal-c-baja-... Jual besi cnp baja
http://bit.ly/1P41Awa undangan pernikahan custom
http://www.jualbesibajamurah.com/harga-besi-profil-h-beam-kanal-h-baja-p... Jual besi h beam baja
http://www.pusatbesibaja.co.id www.pusatbesibaja.co.id
http://www.undangancinta.com undangan pernikahan murah
http://www.sentrabesibaja.com/besi-hollow-hitam-galvaniz/ Agen Besi Hollow
http://ironsteelcenter.com/stainless-steel-ss-sus-304-210-316-310-301-st... Agen Stainless steel
http://www.jualbesibajamurah.com/harga-besi-profil-cnp-gording-kanal-c-b... Harga besi cnp baja
http://www.jualbesibetonhargapabrikmurah.com/category/besi-beton-master-... Toko besi beton master steel ms
http://www.pusatbesibaja.co.id/harga-besi-profil-cnp-gording-kanal-c-baj... Supplier besi cnp baja
http://www.pusatbesibaja.com/harga-besi-profil-cnp-gording-kanal-c-baja-... Supplier besi cnp baja
http://bit.ly/1P41Awa undangan pernikahan cute
http://www.jualbesibajamurah.com/harga-besi-profil-h-beam-kanal-h-baja-p... Supplier besi h beam baja
http://www.pusatbesibaja.com www.pusatbesibaja.com https://sagalayavillage.com sewa villa puncak
http://www.undangancinta.com undangan pernikahan unik
http://www.sentrabesibaja.com/besi-wiremesh/ Agen Wiremesh
http://ironsteelcenter.com/stainless-steel-ss-sus-304-210-316-310-301-st... Toko Stainless steel
http://www.jualbesibajamurah.com/harga-besi-profil-cnp-gording-kanal-c-b... Jual besi cnp baja
http://www.jualbesibetonhargapabrikmurah.com/category/besi-beton-ksty-ul... Toko besi beton ksty
http://www.pusatbesibaja.co.id/harga-besi-profil-cnp-gording-kanal-c-baj... Toko besi cnp baja
http://www.pusatbesibaja.com/harga-besi-profil-cnp-gording-kanal-c-baja-... Toko besi cnp baja
http://bit.ly/1P41Awa undangan pernikahan coklat
http://www.jualbesibajamurah.com/harga-besi-profil-h-beam-kanal-h-baja-p... Toko besi h beam baja
http://www.jualbesibajamurah.com www.jualbesibajamurah.com
http://bit.ly/1P41Awa undangan pernikahan biasa
http://www.sentrabesibaja.com/pipa-besi-baja-sch-80-schedule/ Agen Besi Pipa Baja Schedule 80
http://ironsteelcenter.com/stainless-steel-ss-sus-304-210-316-310-301-st... Jual Stainless steel
http://www.jualbesibajamurah.com/harga-besi-profil-cnp-gording-kanal-c-b... Supplier besi cnp baja
http://www.jualbesibetonhargapabrikmurah.com/category/besi-beton-krakata... Toko besi beton krakatau steel
http://www.pusatbesibaja.co.id/harga-besi-profil-cnp-gording-kanal-c-baj... Agen besi cnp baja
http://www.pusatbesibaja.com/harga-besi-profil-cnp-gording-kanal-c-baja-... Agen besi cnp baja
http://bit.ly/1P41Awa undangan pernikahan cantik dan murah
http://www.jualbesibajamurah.com/harga-besi-profil-h-beam-kanal-h-baja-p... Agen besi h beam baja
http://www.jualbesibetonhargapabrikmurah.com/category/besi-beton-sni-uli... Agen besi beton Sni Ulir Polos polos ulir
http://bit.ly/1P41Awa undangan pernikahan bunga
http://www.sentrabesibaja.com/pipa-besi-baja-sch-40-schedule/ Agen Besi Pipa Baja Schedule 40
http://ironsteelcenter.com/stainless-steel-ss-sus-304-210-316-310-301-st... Harga Stainless steel
http://www.jualbesibajamurah.com/harga-besi-profil-cnp-gording-kanal-c-b... Toko besi cnp baja
http://www.jualbesibetonhargapabrikmurah.com/category/besi-beton-jcac-ul... Toko besi beton jcac
http://www.pusatbesibaja.co.id/harga-besi-profil-cnp-gording-kanal-c-baj... Pabrik besi cnp baja
http://www.pusatbesibaja.com/harga-besi-profil-cnp-gording-kanal-c-baja-... Pabrik besi cnp baja
http://bit.ly/1P41Awa undangan pernikahan casual
http://www.jualbesibajamurah.com/harga-besi-profil-h-beam-kanal-h-baja-p... Pabrik besi h beam baja
http://www.jualbesibetonhargapabrikmurah.com/category/besi-beton-sii-uli... Agen besi beton sii
http://www.undangancinta.com undangan pernikahan artis
http://www.sentrabesibaja.com/pipa-besi-hitam-medium-galvaniz/ Agen Pipa Besi Hitam Medium
http://ironsteelcenter.com/stainless-steel-ss-sus-304-210-316-310-301-st... Pabrik Stainless steel
http://www.jualbesibajamurah.com/harga-besi-profil-cnp-gording-kanal-c-b... Agen besi cnp baja
http://www.jualbesibetonhargapabrikmurah.com/category/besi-beton-interwo... Toko besi beton interworld steel is
http://www.pusatbesibaja.co.id/harga-besi-profil-h-beam-kanal-h-baja-dis... Distributor besi h beam baja
http://www.pusatbesibaja.com/harga-besi-profil-h-beam-kanal-h-baja-toko-... Distributor besi h beam baja
http://bit.ly/1P41Awa undangan pernikahan contoh
http://www.jualbesibajamurah.com/harga-plat-besi-baja-hitam-produsen-sup... Distributor plat besi hitam
http://www.jualbesibetonhargapabrikmurah.com/category/besi-beton-psi-uli... Agen besi beton psi Ulir Polos
http://www.undangancinta.com undangan pernikahan modern
http://www.sentrabesibaja.com/besi-baja-i-wf-profil/ Agen Besi Wf
http://ironsteelcenter.com/baja-ringan/harga-jual-baja-ringan-supplier-p... Distributor Baja Ringan
http://www.gudangbesibaja.com/harga-wiremesh-sni-jual-distributor-pabrik Distributor Wiremesh Besi
http://www.jualbesibetonhargapabrikmurah.com/category/besi-beton-gunung-... Toko besi beton gunung garuda
http://www.pusatbesibaja.co.id/harga-besi-profil-h-beam-kanal-h-baja-dis... Harga besi h beam baja
http://www.pusatbesibaja.com/harga-besi-profil-h-beam-kanal-h-baja-toko-... Harga besi h beam baja
http://bit.ly/1P41Awa undangan pernikahan chinese
http://www.jualbesibajamurah.com/harga-plat-besi-baja-hitam-produsen-sup... Harga plat besi hitam
http://www.jualbesibetonhargapabrikmurah.com/category/besi-beton-perwira... Agen besi beton perwira
http://www.undangancinta.com undangan pernikahan artis
http://www.sentrabesibaja.com/besi-baja-hbeam-profil/ Agen Besi H beam
http://ironsteelcenter.com/baja-ringan/harga-jual-baja-ringan-supplier-p... Supplier Baja Ringan
http://www.gudangbesibaja.com/harga-wiremesh-sni-jual-distributor-pabrik Harga Wiremesh Besi
http://www.jualbesibetonhargapabrikmurah.com/category/besi-beton-delco-p... Toko besi beton delcoprima
http://www.pusatbesibaja.co.id/harga-besi-profil-h-beam-kanal-h-baja-dis... Jual besi h beam baja
http://www.pusatbesibaja.com/harga-besi-profil-h-beam-kanal-h-baja-toko-... Jual besi h beam baja
http://bit.ly/1P41Awa undangan pernikahan cantik
http://www.jualbesibajamurah.com/harga-plat-besi-baja-hitam-produsen-sup... Jual plat besi hitam
http://www.jualbesibetonhargapabrikmurah.com/category/besi-beton-pas-uli... Agen besi beton PAS
https://goo.gl/XZ6zpY undangan pernikahan casual
http://www.sentrabesibaja.com/besi-beton-ulir-polos-sni/ Agen Besi Beton
http://ironsteelcenter.com/baja-ringan/harga-jual-baja-ringan-supplier-p... Agen Baja Ringan
http://www.gudangbesibaja.com/harga-wiremesh-sni-jual-distributor-pabrik Jual Wiremesh Besi
http://www.jualbesibetonhargapabrikmurah.com/category/besi-beton-cakra-s... Toko besi beton cakra steel cs
http://www.pusatbesibaja.co.id/harga-besi-profil-h-beam-kanal-h-baja-dis... Supplier besi h beam baja
http://www.pusatbesibaja.com/harga-besi-profil-h-beam-kanal-h-baja-toko-... Supplier besi h beam baja
http://bit.ly/1P41Awa undangan pernikahan bunga
http://www.jualbesibajamurah.com/harga-plat-besi-baja-hitam-produsen-sup... Supplier plat besi hitam
http://www.jualbesibetonhargapabrikmurah.com/category/besi-beton-master-... Agen besi beton master steel ms
https://goo.gl/XZ6zpY undangan pernikahan animasi
http://www.sentrabesibaja.com/ www.sentrabesibaja.com
http://ironsteelcenter.com/baja-ringan/harga-jual-baja-ringan-supplier-p... Toko Baja Ringan
http://www.gudangbesibaja.com/harga-wiremesh-sni-jual-distributor-pabrik Supplier Wiremesh Besi
http://www.jualbesibetonhargapabrikmurah.com/category/besi-beton-bjku-ul... Toko besi beton bjku
http://www.pusatbesibaja.co.id/harga-besi-profil-h-beam-kanal-h-baja-dis... Toko besi h beam baja
http://www.pusatbesibaja.com/harga-besi-profil-h-beam-kanal-h-baja-toko-... Toko besi h beam baja
http://bit.ly/1P41Awa undangan pernikahan bentuk dompet
http://www.jualbesibajamurah.com/harga-plat-besi-baja-hitam-produsen-sup... Toko plat besi hitam
http://www.jualbesibetonhargapabrikmurah.com/category/besi-beton-ksty-ul... Agen besi beton ksty
https://goo.gl/XZ6zpY undangan pernikahan murah
http://www.sentrabesibaja.com/welded-beam-castellated-beam-queen-king-cr... Toko Welded Beam T beam King Queen Cross Castellated Beam
http://ironsteelcenter.com/baja-ringan/harga-jual-baja-ringan-supplier-p... Jual Baja Ringan
http://www.gudangbesibaja.com/harga-wiremesh-sni-jual-distributor-pabrik Toko Wiremesh Besi
http://www.jualbesibetonhargapabrikmurah.com/category/besi-beton-banci-u... Toko besi beton Sni Ulir Polos
http://www.pusatbesibaja.co.id/harga-besi-profil-h-beam-kanal-h-baja-dis... Agen besi h beam baja
http://www.pusatbesibaja.com/harga-besi-profil-h-beam-kanal-h-baja-toko-... Agen besi h beam baja
http://bit.ly/1P41Awa undangan pernikahan buatan sendiri
http://www.jualbesibajamurah.com/harga-plat-besi-baja-hitam-produsen-sup... Agen plat besi hitam
http://www.jualbesibetonhargapabrikmurah.com/category/besi-beton-krakata... Agen besi beton krakatau steel
http://bit.ly/1P41Awa undangan pernikahan biru
http://www.sentrabesibaja.com/bondek-cor-sni/ Toko Bondek Cor
http://ironsteelcenter.com/baja-ringan/harga-jual-baja-ringan-supplier-p... Harga Baja Ringan
http://www.gudangbesibaja.com/harga-wiremesh-sni-jual-distributor-pabrik Agen Wiremesh Besi
http://www.jualbesibetonhargapabrikmurah.com/category/besi-beton-ais-uli... Toko besi beton ais
http://www.pusatbesibaja.co.id/harga-besi-profil-h-beam-kanal-h-baja-dis... Pabrik besi h beam baja
http://www.pusatbesibaja.com/harga-besi-profil-h-beam-kanal-h-baja-toko-... Pabrik besi h beam baja
http://bit.ly/1P41Awa undangan pernikahan batik
http://www.jualbesibajamurah.com/harga-plat-besi-baja-hitam-produsen-sup... Pabrik plat besi hitam
http://www.jualbesibetonhargapabrikmurah.com/category/besi-beton-jcac-ul... Agen besi beton jcac
http://www.undangancinta.com undangan pernikahan arab
http://www.sentrabesibaja.com/atap-spandek/ Toko Atap Spandek Sni
http://ironsteelcenter.com/baja-ringan/harga-jual-baja-ringan-supplier-p... Pabrik Baja Ringan
http://www.gudangbesibaja.com/harga-wiremesh-sni-jual-distributor-pabrik Pabrik Wiremesh Besi
http://www.jualbesibetonhargapabrikmurah.com/ Toko besi beton
https://goo.gl/ncgJmF Jual Jaket Parka http://bit.ly/2lS1aOh Jual Jaket Parka
https://goo.gl/ncgJmF Jaket Parka http://bit.ly/2lS1aOh Jaket Parka
http://www.undangancinta.com undangan pernikahan kalender
http://www.undangancinta.com undangan pernikahan bahasa inggris islam
http://www.undangancinta.com undangan pernikahan islami
http://www.undangancinta.com undangan pernikahan unik dan murah
http://www.undangancinta.com undangan pernikahan modern
http://www.undangancinta.com undangan pernikahan online
http://www.undangancinta.com undangan pernikahan
http://www.undangancinta.com undangan pernikahan amplop surat
http://www.undangancinta.com undangan pernikahan simple
http://www.undangancinta.com undangan pernikahan murah
http://www.undangancinta.com undangan pernikahan unik
http://www.undangancinta.com undangan pernikahan artis
http://www.undangancinta.com undangan pernikahan modern
http://www.undangancinta.com undangan pernikahan artis
http://www.undangancinta.com undangan pernikahan arab
https://goo.gl/GaKHyC undangan pernikahan
http://bit.ly/1P41Awa undangan pernikahan

LINK 10

Add new comment

Plain text

  • No HTML tags allowed.
  • Web page addresses and e-mail addresses turn into links automatically.
  • Lines and paragraphs break automatically.
CAPTCHA
This question is for testing whether you are a human visitor and to prevent automated spam submissions.